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COTTON 4

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Choose Correct Supplier or Agent:

Apart from ensuring correct terms of Contract, Buyer should ensure that purchase is made from Reliable Supplier or through a Reliable Agent. Some suppliers evade supplies under some pretext if the market goes up. Otherwise, they supply inferior quality Either way buyer suffers.

By establishing long term relationship will reliable Suppliers, Buyers can have satisfaction of getting correct quality, timely deliveries and fair prices.

CHOOSING SUPPLIER:

It is good to establish long term relationship with a few Agents who represent reputed Trading Companies in various Cotton Exporting Countries. They usually give reliable market information on quality, prices and market trends so that buyer can take intelligent decision. As cotton is not a manufactured Commodity, it is good to buy from dependable suppliers, who will ensure supply of correct quality with a variation within acceptable limits at correct price and also deliver on due date.

CHOOSING QUALITY:

In a market with varying market demand situation. Buyers should decide which counts of Yarn to spin. Buyer can call for samples suitable for spinning Yarn counts programmed for production. Many spinners plan to do under-spinning. For Example, cotton suitable for 44s is used for spinning 40s. Some spinners do over-spinning. They buy cotton suitable for 40s and spin 44s count. But, is advisable to spin optimum count to ensure quality and also keep cost of raw material at minimum level as for as possible. Some spinners also buy 2 or more varieties and blend them for optimum spinning. For' this purpose, a good knowledge to evaluate cotton quality and co-relate with yarn properties of required specifications. Cotton buyer should develop expertise in assessing cotton quality. Machine tests must be done only to confirm manual evaluation.

TAKING RIGHT OPTION:

It is not advisable just to look at price quoted by supplier. Correct costing should be done to work out actual cost when the cotton arrives at Mills. Further lowest price does not always mean highest profit for buying. Profitability may be affected by anyone or more of the following factors.

  • If the trash is higher, more waste will be produced reducing the Yarn out- turn and hence profit.
  • If the uniformity is less, end - breakages will be more reducing productivity and profitability.
  • If grade is poor or more immature fibers are found in cotton, the yarn appearance will be affected and Yarn will fetch lesser price in the market.
  • If the transit period for transport of cotton is longer, then also profitability will be reduced due blocking of funds for a longer period and increased cost of Interest.
  • Rate of Sales Tax varies from State to State. This must be taken in to account.
  • Hence, thorough costing should be worked out before deciding on the quoted pnce onlv

The margin of profit in spinning cotton should be calculated before deciding on The various options available depending on market conditions should be studied.

The factors to be considered for taking options are as follows.

  • Count for which demand is good in market
  • Prices for various counts for which demand exists.
  • Cost of manufacturing various counts.
  • Adequacy of machinery for the selected count.
  • Various varieties of cotton available for spinning the selected count.
  • Profit margin for each count using different varieties.
  • Price quoted by different Agents for same variety of selected cotton.
  • Reliability of supplier for quality and timely delivery.

Cost Consideration:

Apart from the price quoted by the seller, other incidental costs must be taken into consideration before buying.

a) Duration for goods to reach Buyer's godown from the seller's Warehouse. If the duration is longer, buyer will incur higher interest charges.

b) Cost of Transportation and taxes.

Resolution of differences

If any discrepancy arises in the quality, weight and delivery periods, sellers should be willing to resolve the differences amicably and quickly. In case the matter is referred to Arbitrator, the award of the Arbitrator must be immediately enforced.

Bench Marks for Easy Reference

It is better if quality bench marks are established for different varieties so that buying decisions are easy for buyers Following standards have been found to be appropriate for Strict Middling Grade Cotton of staple 1.3/32".

  1. Staple Length ( 2.5% Spun Length) - Minimum 1.08" or 27.4 mm
  2. Micronaire : Minimum 3.8, Maximum-4.6 Variation within bulk sample should not be more than _ 0.1
  3. Colour : Rd not less than 75 not more than 10
  4. Nep Content: Less than 150 per gram
  5. Strength : More than 30 grams/tex
  6. Length Uniformity Ratio: Not less than 85%
  7. Elongation : More than 8%
  8. Short Fiber Content: Less than 5%
  9. Seed Count Fragments : Less than 15 per grams
    1. Commercial Bench marks can be given as follows:
      1. Price Competitiveness
      2. Price Stability
      3. Easy Availability throughout year
      4. Uniform Classing and Grading system
      5. Even- running Cotton in all Characteristics
      6. Reliable deliveries òr Respect for sanctity of contract.

QUALITY EVALUATION:

The need for quality evaluation is for following purposes

a) To get optimum quality at lowest price.
b) To decide whether cotton bought will can be processed to spin Yarn of desired specifications.
c) To check the quality of sample cotton with quality of delivered cotton.
d) To decide about correct machine settings and speeds for processing the cotton
e) To estimate profitability of purchase decisions.

Knowing the cotton properties is only half the battle for profits. It needs expertise to know how to get best of its value.

Currently popular instrument called HVI gives ready information on various parameters to make correct purchase decisions.

If may not be possible to get all the desired qualities in one variety or one lot of Cotton. In such case, an intelligent decision to select best combination of different varieties or lots to get desired Yam quality is necessary to get optimum yarn quality at optimum cost.

If correct evaluation is made, profits are large. Hence, evaluation of quality is essential for optimum profit making and also make the customers happy with supply of correct quality of Yarn.

Expert classers can manage to achieve reasonable level of correct evaluation. Now, with availability of better instruments, it is better to check qualities to make sure that desired quality of cotton is procured.  These details should give cotton buyer reasonable guidance to make correct evaluation of cotton quality and ensure its suitability for producing required quality of yarn.

 

QUALITY EVALUATION        CHARACTERISTICS CO-RELATION TO YARN
1. Staple Length   Spinning Potential
2. Fiber Strength  Yarn strength, less Breakages
3. Fineness          Finer Spinning Potential
4. Maturity     Yarn Strength and even ness, better dyeing
5. Non-Lint.content (Trash) Reduced Waste
6, Uniformity Ratio Better productivity and Evenness
7. Elongation   Less end Breakages
8, Friction   Cohesiveness
9. Class    Yarn Appearance
10.Stickiness     Spinning problem by lapping & Dyeing quality
11. Grey Value Yarn lustre
12. Yellowness      Yarn Appearance
13.Neppiness  Yarn neppiness
14. Moisture Content 8.5% moisture content optimum for spinning at 65%

QUALITY TESTING INSTRUMENTS:

Instrument            Measurements
Fibrogaph     Length
Pressley Apparatres Fiber Bundle Strength
HV I Instrument    Length, Strength, Uniformity, Elongation, Micronaire, Color and Trash
Stelometer Instrument Strength, Elongation
Micronaire  Combined test of fineness & maturity
Shirley Trash Analyser         Trash Content
Manual Test    Class & staple length
Moisture Meter       Moisture
Colorimeter         Grey value & yellow ness. Brightness
Polarised light Microscope or
Casricaire test                        
Maturity
Photographic film   Neppiness

 

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