EFFECT OF COTTON FIBER LENGTH DITSTRIBUTION ON YARN QUALITY - 3
For the fibers shorter than one inch the correlation coefficients are negative in all cases; therefore, the larger the share of these length categories, the lower the CSP. For fibers in the 1.00-to-1.25 category the correlation coefficients are still negative but are near zero. As the length categories increase above this level, the correlations become positive and large. The category longer than 2 inches exhibits the highest positive correlation of all. The calculation of the correlation coefficients between the CSP and the various fiber properties used for prediction is given in Table 4.
It shows that the AFIS percent of fibers longer than 2 inches is the best length parameter to predict CSP. In fact, it performs better than the HVI strength and the AFIS standard fineness. This is even more startling given that the percentage of fibers longer than 2 inches averages only 1 percent on the 108 samples tested .
Figure 12 shows the coefficients of correlation between the UT3 non-uniformity (CV%) and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories. Note the following: . The carded ring spun yarns exhibit very similar behavior. The length categories giving the best correlation coefficients with the yarn uniformity are: [0.00;0.25], [0.25;0.50] and [>2.00], with a positive correlation for the shorter fibers and a negative correlation for the longer fibers. Therefore, the higher the short fiber content, the higher is the yarn CV%; and the higher the long fiber content, the lower is the yarn CV%. . The UT3 CV% of the combed ring-spun yarn exhibits a very good correlation with the percentage of fibers longer than 2 inches and a quite poor correlation with the shorter fibers.
This is logical because a large part of the shorter fibers has been removed during the combing operation. . For the rotor spun yarn, the negative effect on the yarn uniformity of the shorter fibers is limited. But the fibers between 1.75 and 2 inches exhibit the highest correlation with the yarn CV%. The fibers longer than two inches give a lower correlation, probably because a part of them (the extremely long fibers) wrap around the yarn and create imperfections. This is likely related to the rotor diameter and it will be necessary to test different rotor diameters to confirm this hypothesis.
Figures 13 and 14 show the coefficient of correlation between the UT3 thin and thick places, respectively, and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories. The figures look very similar to the UT3 CV% and similar conclusions can be made.
Figure 15 shows the correlation coefficients between the UT3 neps and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories. The correlation levels are generally lower than were exhibited for the previous parameters. However, for the carded ring-spun yarns of 36 Ne and 50 Ne, correlations of neps with the length category [1.00;1.25] are fairly high. We currently have no coherent hypothesis to explain this.
Figure 16 shows the correlation coefficients between the UT3 hairiness and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories. The shapes of the curves are quite similar for all the types of yarns.ring vs. rotor and carded vs. combed. For the fibers shorter than 1/4 inch, the correlation coefficients have positive signs and are very high in all cases. Therefore, these very short fibers are important contributors toward increased yarn hairiness. Conversely, correlation coefficients for the fibers longer than two inches are also high but with negative signs; therefore, these fibers, which measure very long, are important contributors toward decreased yarn hairiness.
Figure 17 shows the correlation coefficients between levels of the combing noils and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories. As expected, the correlation coefficients very high for the three shortest length categories but low for the other length categories.
Table 5 shows the multiple regression coefficients between the fiber and yarn parameters and the percentages of fiber in the different length categories (Forward Stepwise regression with Sigma-restricted parameterization). These results reveal that the only statistically significant length parameter related to the CSP is the percent of the fibers longer than 2 inches. For the yarn regularity (CV%, thin places and thick places) the important parameters are the very short fibers (shorter than ¼ inch) and the very long fibers (longer than 2 inches).
The third experiment was done to obtain some confirmation of effects of the longest fibers on the yarn strength. Using two commercial bales of Upland cotton, ring-spun 30 Ne yarns were made. Then very small amounts (2% and 5%) of ELS cotton fibers were mixed with the Upland cotton and also ring spun into 30 Ne yarns. Figure 18 gives results on CSP and Figure 19 gives results on tenacity. They both show a tendency for increased strength with small additions of ELS. On average for the two bales, adding 2% ELS increased the CSP 3.8% and the tenacity 7.7%. Adding 5% ELS results in average increases of 7.3% in CSP and 8.5% in tenacity. These limited results give encouragement to design a more complete study using larger samples and optimizing the spinning parameters for each mix tested.
The length distribution data available with the AFIS appears to contain information that is useful to both the cotton breeders and the spinners. Since the length distribution clearly appears to be variety related, it may provide a new tool for cotton breeders in their efforts to reduce short fiber content. The causes for the AFIS measuring some fibers as longer than 2 inches are not understood; nevertheless, this measurement exhibits the highest correlation with the yarn CSP.
For the carded ring-spun yarns, the shortest fibers and the longest fibers exhibit the highest correlation with the yarn CV%, the number of thin places, and the number of thick places. For the combed ring-spun yarns and the rotor-spun yarns, the longest fibers exhibit the highest correlation with the yarn CV%, the thin places, and the thick places.
The correlation coefficients between the different length categories and the number of neps are generally low.
The shortest and the longest fibers are highly correlated with the hairiness for all the types of yarns. The shortest fibers increase hairiness and the longest fibers decrease hairiness. The three shortest length categories are highly correlated with increased combing noils.
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